The development of the Brazilian Alliance for Extinction Zero (BAZE) updated site list and conservation strategy was written by Fundação Biodiversitas in partnership with American Bird Conservancy, BirdLife International, Global Environment Facility and the Brazilian Ministry of the Environment.

Authors: Cássio Soares Martins (Fundação Biodiversitas), Gláucia Moreira Drummond (Fundação Biodiversitas), Marina Schmoeller do Prado Rodrigues (Fundação Biodiversitas).

This document is available below or for download here.

Part 1. Overview of AZE and BAZE sites in Brazil

The Brazilian Alliance for Zero Extinction (BAZE) officially started its activities in 2006, when a Protocol for Action was signed by then Minister of the Environment Marina Silva. The Protocol was a product of a partnership including Fundação Biodiversitas, the Brazilian Ministry of the Environment and other Brazilian institutions devoted to biodiversity conservation. The Protocol was accompanied by the legal recognition of BAZE through a Ministerial Ordinance (Portaria MMA nº 182/2006). The goal of BAZE is to reinforce the mission of the global AZE in Brazil, but also to:

  1. Value national science and knowledge by using the Brazilian Red List of Threatened Species as a reference, instead of IUCN’s global Red List;
  2. Engage national researchers and institutions in the selection of species and design of sites, to increase both the precision and the impact of the results;
  3. Articulate conservation policy and strategies in national, regional and local levels, engaging stakeholders in all such levels and publicizing the need to protect BAZE sites and their trigger species;
  4. Gather among its members representatives from several institutions involved in the conservation and protection of threatened species in Brazil, to potentialize the chances of success for any initiative that might derive from BAZE.

Prior to 2016, there were 40 AZE sites identified in Brazilian territory, for 50 species. In turn, the first Brazilian Alliance for Zero Extinction (BAZE) map had identified 32 sites for 36 species in 2010, of which 15 corresponded to AZE sites. After the updates in both AZE and BAZE sites lists and maps, those numbers changed from 40 to 22 (excluding flora) and from 32 to 146, respectively. The significant growth in the BAZE list is mainly due to the similar increase in comprehensiveness of the Brazilian Red List of Threatened Species assessment, used as a reference for the analysis. Similarly, the differences between AZE and BAZE lists come from different species threat status in the global IUCN Red List and in the Brazilian Red List.

The current BAZE map indicates 146 for 230 species of fauna (Appendix 1), distributed in all Brazilian biomes, except for Pantanal. The species are distributed among 6 taxonomic groups (Terrestrial Invertebrates, Aquatic Invertebrates, Continental Fishes, Marine Fishes, Sea Turtles and Terrestrial Vertebrates; Appendix 2), as indicated in Figure 1. In general, there were more trigger species among Rivulidae fish (Rivulidae, 34 species), followed by Arachnida terrestrial invertebrates (Arachnida, 31 species) and Vertebrates in the classes Aves (30 species) and Reptilia (22 species). Among aquatic invertebrates, the classes Gastropoda (7 species) and Malacostraca (6 species) stand out.

Of the 230 trigger species, 159 (approximately 70%) are classified as “Critically Endangered” (CR) by the last national assessment (Portaria No. 444/2014). The others, except for an Extinct in Nature (EW; Pauxi mitu) and a Probably Extinct in Nature (CR (PEW); Cyanopsitta spixii) are evaluated as Endangered. The majority (75%) of the sites were defined for only one trigger species, but five sites (6%) were defined for five or more species, and the Parque Estadual Turístico do Alto Ribeira is the site with the highest number of trigger species (14 species). Only 14 BAZE sites correspond to Alliance Global Zero Extinction sites (Table 1) due to the use of different Red Lists as reference, as explained earlier.

Table 1: List of BAZE sites (2018) and corresponding global AZE sites (2018).

Figure 1 – Graphs indicating the distribution of trigger species in taxonomic groups. Larger groups follow the division proposed by Chico Mendes Institute for Biodiversity Conservation (ICMBio). during the species threat assessment process. There are no graphs representing Marine Fish and Sea Turtles, since only two species were selected in each group. For a detailed account, see Appendix 2.


The sites are distributed throughout the regions and in almost all Brazilian states except Sergipe, Acre, Amapá and Roraima. The states with the largest number of sites were Bahia (25) and Minas Gerais (21), as well as two other sites on the border between the two States. More than 50% of the sites are in the Atlantic Forest (74 sites), with another 30% divided between the Cerrado (26 sites) and the Caatinga (18 sites), concentrated in the Southeast and Northeast regions (Figure 2). The sites added together cover an area of ​​over 8 million hectares, with individual areas varying from 39 ha (Imbituba) to nearly 1 million ha (Chapada do Araripe), as indicated in Figure 3. The complete list of sites is available on Appendix 1, and the preliminary map of sites can be seen in Appendix 3.

Figure 2: Number of Brazilian Alliance for Zero Extinction (BAZE) by Brazilian region and biome.

Figure 3: Frequency distribution of Brazilian Alliance for Zero Extinction (BAZE) sites according to total calculated area (in hectares), highlighting the concentration of sites with areas between a thousand and 50 thousand hectares (k = thousand; mil = million). The largest site, Chapada do Araripe, has an area of nearly one million hectares; the smallest, in turn, has only around 40 hectares.

Subsequently, a gap analyses looking at which BAZE sites are protected, partially-protected and unprotected was conducted. We chose to use national and state-level information on protected areas (i.e., Conservation Units), more up-to-date and comprehensive than the Wold Database on Protected Areas (WDPA). The Brazilian Protected Areas include Indigenous Territories and Conservation Units, but for the purpose of the analysis, only Conservation Units were considered, once the government has no jurisdiction over Indigenous Territories. Further, the Brazilian System of Conservation Unities (Sistema Brasileiro de Unidades de Conservação – SNUC; Lei 9985/2000) divides protection categories in two large groups: Sustainable Use (Uso Sustentável – US), which allows for some degree of resource use or extraction, and Full Protection (Proteção Integral – PI), limited to recreational and/or research uses. Within these groups, there are 12 categories, with the best equivalency with IUCN’s Protected Area Categories indicated in Table XXX, together with a brief description of their purposes and limitations.

Table 2: Categories of Conservation Units in Brazil, according to the National System on Conservation Units (SNUC; Lei 9985/2000) and their approximate equivalency to IUCN Protected Area Categories.

When overlapping sites with Conservation Units, we considered “Protected” only sites completely within a PI Conservation Unit. When a site was partially covered by a PI or covered in any level by one or more US Conservation Units, we determined it was “Partially Protected”. Sites designated as “Unprotected” are not covered in any extent by any Conservation Unit, to the best of our knowledge. According to site overlap analysis with spatial data from protected areas, 59 sites (41%) are not under any formal protection and another 52 (33%) are only partially protected. Thus, only 35 sites are fully protected, with 25 Parks (15 state, 9 national and 1 municipal), four Natural Monuments, three Biological Reserves, two Wildlife Refuges and two Ecological Stations. It is important to notice that the “Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Natural” (RPPN) category is close in restrictions to the PI areas. Thus, if we consider site protected by RPPN under PI, the number of “Protected” sites rises to 37, due to the sites RPPN Fazenda Jequitibá and RPPN Fazenda Klagesi.

Part 2. Methods for the identification of BAZE sites and gap analysis

The production of the BAZE site map was strategically divided into two stages, referred to as “Candidate species selection” and “Site delimitation”, with expert reviews incorporated to both and at the end of the full process, to ensure scientific quality of the final product. Outlined below are the key steps taken in each stage and a detailed description of each one.

A. Candidate species selection

  1. Obtaining distribution data and assessment information on threatened species

The spatial data used to evaluate threatened species were provided to Fundação Biodiversitas by the Chico Mendes Institute for Biodiversity Conservation (ICMBio). Data were obtained for all threatened species in the Vulnerable (VU, 448 species), Endangered (EN, 409 species) and Critically Endangered (CR, 319 species) categories, but only EN and CR were considered (total 728 species). Data precision varied considerably; for 150 species, mostly mammals and reptiles, only estimated distribution polygons were provided, while for the remaining 578 the occurrence record points were also made available, which could be very precise (up to 10km from the exact location of the record) to very generic (municipality centroid). Species evaluations on the ICMBio portal, complementary to the database, were also consulted. Information on species biology and distribution on the portal were not always sufficient to inform decisions for some species, mainly because some of the species description pages are still under preparation. In such cases, auxiliary bibliography was consulted to obtain data necessary for the evaluation of the species, in particular the Red Book of the Brazilian Fauna Threatened with Extinction (Fundação Biodiversitas, 2008) and species description papers.

2. Construction of a geographic database, initial assessment of fauna data and exploratory analyses

The data provided was integrated into a geographic database using ArcGIS 10.2. In the same database, data on political divisions (national, state and municipal boundaries), special areas (Protected areas, divided in Conservation Units and Indigenous Territories, Priority Areas for Conservation and Ecological Corridors), river basins, biomes and roads were added to support decision making during the selection of candidate trigger species for BAZE sites. These are species that are likely to lead to (i.e., trigger), the identification of a BAZE site.

Several exploratory spatial analyses were conducted to find strategies to evaluate the species according to AZE criteria. Based on the results of these analyses and an initial assessment of terrestrial vertebrate groups (Amphibians, Birds, Mammals and Reptiles; a total of 124 species), three classification groups were created: Candidate species, Potential species and Non-candidate species. The candidate species were divided into five subgroups, differentiating species occurring only in one location, species occurring mostly in one location and species occurring in only one location or predominantly in a location at a particular stage of their life cycle. Potential species were also subdivided, differentiating species that met most of the criteria, but whose data were not sufficiently reliable for decision making, either due to taxonomic confusion or data scarcity, and species that are likely to meet the criteria in the future if their threats are not reduced or removed. Each of the 728 species of fauna listed as Endangered or Critically Endangered by the Brazilian Ministry of the Environment Ordinance 444/2014 (Portaria MMA No. 444/2014) was individually assessed to assign it to one of the eight groups explained above. In cases where the available data were inconclusive, species were marked with an asterisk (*) to indicate the need for special attention during the review by specialists (see below).

3. Review by specialists

The list of classified species was divided by taxonomic group and by the working group to which it was associated during the latest species Red List assessment by ICMBio. Only species judged to have the potential to become triggers for BAZE sites (Candidate species) and those with an asterisk mark (*) were referred for review, but researchers were free to offer suggestions of species to include. The researchers contacted were those nominated by ICMBio as coordinators of taxa during the last threatened species assessment, which generated the list published in the Ministry of the Environment Ordinance No. 444/2014, on which the map is based. When these researchers were not found, could not or did not wish to participate, other indicated specialists were sought. Each of the researchers received a formal request for revision by electronic mail, together with a document explaining the nature, purpose and methodology of AZE and BAZE, and a list of species specific to the expertise of each researcher. The contributions of the researchers were added in a new selection worksheet, with groups modified according to the corrections made. Before the next stage started, about 84% of the species (612) had been reviewed by the researchers. Of the species without review, 29 were pre-selected as Candidates and 14 as Potentials. The reviews resulted in 127 species (20% of the reviewed and 17% of the total) changing classification, 19 becoming Candidates, 95 Potentials and 13 Non-candidates. The overall accuracy of the pre-selection can be considered, then, to be around 80%, demonstrating the importance of the review process to improve the overall quality of the final product.

B. Site delimitation

  1. Mapping of sites for candidate BAZE species

After review by the researchers, results were integrated into the ArcGIS database for spatial design of sites. Only species classified as Candidate had sites outlined, while others will only be indicated in text when the map is published. During this stage, broader research about the distribution and habitat requirements of species was made through searches in specific literature. Each preliminary site was indicated by a point, to which additional information was added regarding: trigger species, site focal habitat (inland aquatic, terrestrial, marine, caves, coastal or islands), designated according to the habitat of trigger species, biome and protection status. The preliminary map with the approximate locations of the future sites was shared with the researchers involved in the previous steps of the project for validation. The selected species and their localities of occurrence were validated, and necessary corrections were made.

2. Spatial delimitation of sites

The sites were delineated according to the methodology adapted from two IUCN publications of the identification of KBAs (Key Biodiversity Areas), A Global Standard for the Identification of Key Biodiversity Areas, (2016) and Identification and Gap Analysis of Key Biodiversity Areas (2007). According to this method, there is no lower or upper limit of size, but the enclosed area should be sufficient to meet the ecological needs of the species and to facilitate management. It is important to highlight that the boundaries of the sites are not fixed and can be altered as new information on the biology and distribution of the species and on the socio-political context of the site is acquired, to improve management efficiency. The delineation phases can be summarized as follows:

a. Definition of relevant spatial data and assembly in Geographic Information System (GIS)

At this stage, spatial information was used to differentiate between the area where the species occurs and the area with little or no chance of occupancy by the species. For example, relief and hydrographical information were essential in the definition of sites for aquatic species, since a species with restricted occurrence in a particular basin is unlikely to occur in a basin of another main river. We decided to use only official databases, made available by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE), the Ministry of the Environment (MMA), the Brazilian Geological Survey (CPRM) and other national and state official bodies. Each analysis used a specific group of databases, considering species ecology and maneuverability.

b. Definition of limits based on ecological information

The essential area for the conservation of the species was designated considering its ecological characteristics. For example, for forest-exclusive species, the largest continuous forest area with occurrence of the species was defined as a site. The same method was used for species in other terrestrial habitats (e.g., dunes, rupestrian fields). Distinctively, freshwater species that occur in a single river and rely on clean water require that the river drainage area be managed to maintain the quality of the habitat. Thus, the site was defined as the smallest section of river basin, as codified by the National Water Agency (levels of Ottobacia; ANA 2007) that contained the species distribution and the relevant drainage area, or as the union of two or more neighboring basin sections. Another example are cave-dwelling species, that depend indirectly on the maintenance of the slope where the cave is located, making it necessary to include this slope in the site to ensure appropriate conservation management.

c. Refinement of limits to improve management, considering:

  1. The existence of other areas of importance for biodiversity defined for the species or the site, such as KBAs, priority areas of Brazilian biomes, global AZE sites and Important Bird Areas (IBA), seeking to use these existing site boundaries whenever possible to increase the relevance of area conservation and management.
  2. The presence of Conservation Units (UC):
    1. Extrapolating the boundaries of the site to those of the UC when the latter is larger and when it is sufficient to meet the ecological demands of the species or,
    2. Maintaining the limits of the site when it is larger and cannot be reduced to fit the UC’s boundaries. In this case, the extension of the protected area or less restrictive management strategies may be suggested. For Environmental Protection Areas (Áreas de Proteção Ambiental, see Table 2), a Protected Area category that usually encompasses several municipalities and is managed mostly through zoning, with low restrictiveness and enforcement, this criterion was not observed. When a site covered more than one protected area, their limits were used as an aid in setting boundaries, but the main criterion was the ecological demand of the species.
    3. Other information relevant to management, such as administrative boundaries (municipal and state), presence of highways, land use, etc.

For all sites, the justification for the delineation was described in detail, indicating which databases were used and explaining the decisions made. A delineation table was created, listing the names of the sites, the trigger species associated with it, the detailed justifications for the site delineation and species selection, and the name of the responsible technician. All the sites delimited were reviewed by the project manager at Fundação Biodiversitas.

3. Expert review through online consultation

A database containing relevant information for the description and evaluation of the sites was created. This database was made available online for consultation by researchers and invited partners. The included fields are described in Table 3. Before making the online system available for consultation, a round of testing was carried out by the Fundação Biodiversitas technical team, aiming to detect any problems that would make it difficult for third parties to use them. In view of difficulties related to the use of the system and visualizations of the spatial data, a detailed tutorial system was made available on the consultation website and linked to in the invites for participation.

Electronic invitations to participate in the online consultation were sent to three lists of recipients, categorized as follows: (i) 75 representatives of governmental environmental agencies (Ministry of Environment – MMA, Chico Mendes Institute for Nature Conservation – ICMBio and The Brazilian Institute for the Environment and Natural Resources – IBAMA), (ii) 23 partners of the Brazilian Alliance for Zero Extinction, and (iii) 556 researchers from universities, research institutes and non-governmental organizations. The main objectives of the online consultation were to validate the design and aggregate knowledge of threats to sites and conservation actions appropriate to their protection. In addition, performing the query in this format, rather than as a workshop with experts, minimized costs and maximized the scope of the project, expanding the number of partners involved in the Alliance and in producing the map.

Table 3: Content included in the database of sites of the Brazilian Alliance for Extinction Zero and respective descriptions of each field.

A total of 98 people viewed the draft map, mostly from Universities (65 people). Among the registered collaborators, 22 evaluated at least one site, resulting in a total of 28 sites evaluated.

The next step was to finalize the map, by fixing all issues raised during the online consultation. One site was removed from the list due to additional information provided by experts and other two sites and respective trigger species were included, totaling the final 146 sites. A gap analysis was conducted by overlapping the final sites with spatial information regarding conservation Units (UCs) obtained from official databases (ICMBio and state-level environmental bodies). In some particular cases, there were strong indications of the presence of a Conservation Unit near the site, but no correspondent polygon was found on the official databases. In those cases, we directly contacted via electronic mail and/or telephone the office responsible for the UC (either at municipality, state or national level) to acquire information and determine whether the site was within the UC. When no confirmation was obtained, we considered the site unprotected. We only considered “protected” sites completely within a Conservation Unity of Full Protection (PI; see Table 2). All other cases with some level of overlap with PI or US Conservation Unities were considered “partially protected”. When no overlap existed, the site was designated “unprotected”. A second analysis, looking at knowledge gaps that hindered or prevented the delimitation of sites, is underway and will be published with the full guide to BAZE sites.

Part 3. Development of an AZE/BAZE conservation strategy in Brazil

Efforts to develop and strengthen AZE in Brazil so far focused on institutionalizing BAZE, building a strong network of member organizations and integrating the initiative to existing conservation law and strategies. A central aspect is the continuous collaboration with the Ministry for the Environment (MMA) and the Chico Mendes Institute for the Conservation of Nature (ICMBio), that allowed for expert knowledge exchange and participation in any developing initiative for conservation of trigger-species and/or their sites, either directly or indirectly.

The first step was to invite the main conservation organizations in the country to affiliate to BAZE, via a formal letter with an adhesion form attached. In total, 34 organizations were officially invited, including previous members (when BAZE was first established in 2006-2008), as well as other prominent non-environmental organizations and research institutes in biodiversity and conservation, and any organizations suggested by the first invitees. Currently (as of June 2018), 16 institutions make up BAZE (Table 4), but any organization whose work involves biodiversity protection and conservation can contact BAZE and ask to join at any time. The members are invited to participate in all stages of the process and will take part on a common agenda after the maps are published.

Table 4: List of Brazilian Alliance for Zero Extinction member organizations and respective websites

To integrate BAZE in existing law and conservation strategies, we worked closely with MMA and ICMBio on three fronts:

  1. Including BAZE, its sites and trigger species in the Brazilian National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan (NBSAP) and Programme of Work on Protected Areas (PoWPA), as established by the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD). A chapter dedicated to BAZE was included in the latest version of Brazilian NBSAP, but the Brazilian government has not yet worked on a new PoWPA (the latest was finalized in 2012);
  2. Including actions towards the conservation of trigger species and sites in national and regional Action Plans for Conservation. BAZE actively participated in meetings and virtual rounds to develop action plans for birds of Caatinga and herpetofauna of Serra do Espinhaço, successfully incorporating actions for the trigger-species under their scope;
  3. Building a national legal mechanism to recognize BAZE as an organization, and its sites and trigger-species as top priorities for conservation that should be regarded in existing public conservation strategies, funding opportunities and protected area establishment. Since early 2017, Fundação Biodiversitas and MMA dialogued to write an Ordinance (Portaria) defining BAZE and its management structure, trigger-species and sites and proposing protection mechanisms and policies to control site and species exploration. This proposal will revoke the previous Ordinance that recognized BAZE (Portaria No. 182/2006) and reestablish it as a governance structure directly linked to the Ministry but with autonomy to choose its members and management and act according to its statute. The proposed governance structure is enabled by building BAZE Managing Committee as a Thematic Group under the Threatened Species Technical Chamber of the National Commission for Biodiversity (Comissão Nacional da Biodiversidade – CONABIO). That way, the Managing Committee is linked to the Ministry but maintains a level of independence, because it can be formed by members elected periodically from representatives of the institutions affiliated to BAZE. All control and protection mechanisms proposed are based on pre-existing ones from the national law that could be applied to BAZE sites and species. They include resource allocation from environmental damage compensation, creation and expansion of Conservation Units (UC) and land management planning strategies, as well as the mandatory update and publishing of the BAZE sites map, following changes on the Brazilian Red List. Thus, the text observes the limitations an Ordinance poses but still provides clear directives to enable the continuity of BAZE and to promote species and site protection. The proposal is currently under review by the Ministry of the Environment Legal Department and should be signed as soon as the new BAZE map and its full development methodology is published.


APPENDIX 1: List of Brazilian Alliance for Zero Extinction (BAZE) sites and respective triggers species.

1 Ilhas do Madeira
Biome: Amazonia
Trigger-species: Thamnophilus nigrocinereus tschudii
2 Rio Uatumã
Biome: Amazonia
Trigger-species: Apteronotus lindalvae, Sternarchorhynchus higuchii, Sternarchorhynchus jaimei
3 Caverna do Limoeiro
Biome: Amazonia
Trigger-species: Troglobius brasiliensis
4 Floresta Nacional de Carajás
Biome: Amazonia
Trigger-species: Drymusa spelunca, Harmonicon cerberus, Copelatus cessaima
5 Ilha do Arapujá – Belo Monte
Biome: Amazonia
Trigger-species: Pituna xinguensis, Plesiolebias altamira, Spectrolebias reticulatus
6 Reserva Biológica de Gurupi
Biome: Amazonia
Trigger-species: Crax fasciolata pinima
7 RPPN Reserva Klagesi
Biome: Amazonia
Trigger-species: Parides klagesi
8 Serra Pelada
Biome: Amazonia
Trigger-species: Glomeridesmus spelaeus, Leptokoenenia pelada, Coarazuphium tapiaguassu
9 Pimenta Bueno
Biome: Amazonia
Trigger-species: Ctenomys bicolor
10 Vilhena
Biome: Amazonia, Cerrado
Trigger-species: Apostolepis striata
11 Brejinho de Nazaré
Biome: Cerrado
Trigger-species: Hypsolebias multiradiatus
12 Porto Nacional
Biome: Cerrado
Trigger-species: Scolopendropsis duplicata
13 Estação Ecológica de Murici
Biome: Atlantic Forest
Trigger-species: Crossodactylus dantei, Bothrops muriciensis, Sclerurus caudacutus caligineus
14 Matriz de Camaragibe
Biome: Atlantic Forest
Trigger-species: Leptodon forbesi
15 Reserva Biológica de Pedra Talhada
Biome: Atlantic Forest
Trigger-species: Atractus caete
16 Rio Largo
Biome: Atlantic Forest
Trigger-species: Pauxi mitu
17 Amargosa
Biome: Atlantic Forest
Trigger-species: Proceratophrys sanctaritae
18 Baixo Rio Mucuri
Biome: Atlantic Forest
Trigger-species: Mucurilebias leitaoi
19 Bandeira
Biome: Atlantic Forest
Trigger-species: Merulaxis stresemanni
20 Cabeceiras do Rio de Contas
Biome: Caatinga
Trigger-species: Hasemania piatan
21 Casa Nova
Biome: Caatinga
Trigger-species: Procellosaurinus tetradactylus
22 Curaçá
Biome: Caatinga
Trigger-species: Cyanopsitta spixii
23 Dunas do Médio São Francisco
Biome: Caatinga, Cerrado
Trigger-species: Amphisbaena arda, Apostolepis gaboi, Calyptommatus nicterus, Calyptommatus sinebrachiatus, Eurolophosaurus amathites, Rodriguesophis chui, Typhlops yonenagae
24 Fazenda Caraíbas
Biome: Caatinga
Trigger-species: Amphisbaena uroxena, Enyalius erythroceneus, Heterodactylus septentrionalis
25 Gruta do Padre
Biome: Cerrado
Trigger-species: Coarazuphium tessai
26 Gruta dos Brejões
Biome: Caatinga
Trigger-species: Racekiela cavernicola
27 Ilha de Cassumba
Biome: Atlantic Forest
Trigger-species: Ceracis cassumbensis
28 Ilhéus
Biome: Atlantic Forest
Trigger-species: Gnamptogenys wilsoni, Ophthalmolebias bokermanni
29 Itororó
Biome: Atlantic Forest
Trigger-species: Stigmatomma cleae
30 Lapa do Baixão
Biome: Cerrado
Trigger-species: Spelaeobochica iuiu
31 Lapa do Bode
Biome: Caatinga
Trigger-species: Coarazuphium cessaima, Metagonia diamantina, Rhopalurus lacrau
32 Parque Estadual Ponta da Tulha
Biome: Atlantic Forest
Trigger-species: Ophthalmolebias ilheusensis
33 Parque Nacional da Chapada Diamantina
Biome: Caatinga
Trigger-species: Formicivora grantsaui, Tmesiphantes hypogeus
34 Parque Nacional da Serra das Lontras
Biome: Atlantic Forest
Trigger-species: Discosura langsdorffi langsdorffi
35 Parque Nacional Marinho de Abrolhos
Trigger-species: Condylactis gigantea, Phaethon aethereus, Scarus trispinosus
36 Raso da Catarina – Canudos
Biome: Caatinga
Trigger-species: Anodorhynchus leari
37 Reserva Biológica de Córrego Grande
Biome: Atlantic Forest
Trigger-species: Leptagrion acutum
38 Riacho das Rãs
Biome: Caatinga
Trigger-species: Cynolebias leptocephalus, Hypsolebias ghisolfii
39 Ribeirão do Salto
Biome: Atlantic Forest
Trigger-species: Ophthalmolebias perpendicularis
40 Rio das Antas
Biome: Atlantic Forest
Trigger-species: Ituglanis cahyensis
41 Rio Pojuca
Biome: Atlantic Forest
Trigger-species: Phalloptychus eigenmanni
42 Rio Santo Antônio
Biome: Caatinga
Trigger-species: Eusarcus elinae, Kolpotocheirodon figueiredoi, Lepidocharax diamantina, Spelaeobochica allodentatus
43 RPPN Reserva Jequitibá
Biome: Atlantic Forest
Trigger-species: Avicularia gamba
44 Serra do Ramalho
Biome: Cerrado
Trigger-species: Charinus troglobius, Spiripockia punctata
45 Valença
Biome: Atlantic Forest
Trigger-species: Crossodactylus lutzorum
46 Chapada do Araripe
Biome: Caatinga
Trigger-species: Antilophia bokermanni
47 Maranguape
Biome: Caatinga
Trigger-species: Hadrurochactas brejo
48 Parque Nacional de Ubajara
Biome: Caatinga
Trigger-species: Rowlandius ubajara
49 Riacho do Tique
Biome: Caatinga
Trigger-species: Anablepsoides cearensis
50 Serra do Baturité
Biome: Caatinga
Trigger-species: Odontophorus capueira plumbeicollis, Selenidera gouldii baturitensis
51 Campestre do Maranhão
Biome: Cerrado
Trigger-species: Hypsolebias tocantinensis
52 Parque Estadual da Mata do Pau-Ferro
Biome: Caatinga
Trigger-species: Typhochlaena curumim
53 Refúgio da Vida Silvestre Mata do Buraquinho
Biome: Atlantic Forest
Trigger-species: Morpho epistrophus nikolajewna
54 Tibau do Sul
Biome: Atlantic Forest
Trigger-species: Eretmochelys imbricata
55 Parque Nacional do Catimbau
Biome: Caatinga
Trigger-species: Amphisbaena supernumeraria
56 Parque Nacional Marinho de Fernando de Noronha
Trigger-species: Phaethon lepturus, Puffinus lherminieri, Sula sula
57 Caverna do Vale
Biome: Caatinga
Trigger-species: Metagonia potiguar
58 Ribeirão Santana
Biome: Cerrado
Trigger-species: Simpsonichthys santanae
59 Lagoa Perta-pé
Biome: Cerrado
Trigger-species: Pamphorichthys pertapeh
60 Lapa do Sumidouro
Biome: Cerrado
Trigger-species: Ituglanis mambai
61 Parque Estadual de Terra Ronca
Biome: Cerrado
Trigger-species: Ancistrus cryptophthalmus, Isoctenus corymbus, Ituglanis bambui, Pimelodella spelaea, Pseudonannolene imbirensis
62 Rio Claro de Goiás
Biome: Cerrado
Trigger-species: Cynolebias griseus
63 Rio dos Patos
Biome: Cerrado
Trigger-species: Hypsolebias marginatus
64 Caverna João de Arruda
Biome: Cerrado
Trigger-species: Pararrhopalites papaveroi
65 Chapada dos Guimarães
Biome: Cerrado
Trigger-species: Allobates brunneus
66 Ribeirão Cascalheira
Biome: Cerrado
Trigger-species: Apostolepis serrana
67 Rio Arinos
Biome: Amazonia
Trigger-species: Prochilodus britskii
68 Comboios – Povoação
Biome: Atlantic Forest
Trigger-species: Dermochelys coriacea
69 Complexo Sooretama – Linhares
Biome: Atlantic Forest
Trigger-species: Celeus flavus subflavus, Crax blumenbachii, Sclerurus caudacutus umbretta, Trogon collaris eytoni, Xenurolebias izecksohni
70 Floresta Nacional do Rio Preto
Biome: Atlantic Forest
Trigger-species: Ianduba paubrasil
71 Foz do Rio Itapemirim
Biome: Atlantic Forest
Trigger-species: Atlantirivulus nudiventris
72 Gruta Archimides Passini
Biome: Atlantic Forest
Trigger-species: Eukoenenia spelunca
73 Ilha de Trindade
Trigger-species: Fregata ariel, Fregata minor, Pterodroma arminjoniana, Succinea lopesi
74 Parque Estadual da Cachoeira da Fumaça
Biome: Atlantic Forest
Trigger-species: Hermanella amere
75 Parque Estadual Paulo César Vinha
Biome: Atlantic Forest
Trigger-species: Melanophryniscus setiba
76 Vargem Alta
Biome: Atlantic Forest
Trigger-species: Nemosia rourei, Trichogenes claviger
77 Caratinga
Biome: Atlantic Forest
Trigger-species: Epiperipatus paurognostus
78 Cataguases
Biome: Atlantic Forest
Trigger-species: Aparasphenodon pomba
79 Córrego do Mutuca
Biome: Atlantic Forest
Trigger-species: Trichomycterus novalimensis
80 Gruta da Morena
Biome: Cerrado
Trigger-species: Eukoenenia sagarana, Spinopilar moria
81 Lençol do Rio Verde Grande
Biome: Caatinga, Cerrado
Trigger-species: Stygichthys typhlops
82 Monumento Natural Estadual Lapa Nova de Vazantes
Biome: Cerrado
Trigger-species: Eukoenenia virgemdalapa
83 Monumento Natural Estadual Peter Lund
Biome: Cerrado
Trigger-species: Eukoenenia maquinensis, Lygromma ybyguara
84 Monumento Natural Serra da Moeda
Biome: Atlantic Forest
Trigger-species: Troglobius ferroicus
85 Parque Estadual de Ibitipoca
Biome: Atlantic Forest
Trigger-species: Ochyrocera ibitipoca
86 Parque Estadual do Sumidouro
Biome: Atlantic Forest
Trigger-species: Thaumastus lundi
87 Parque Nacional Cavernas do Peruaçu
Biome: Cerrado
Trigger-species: Charinus eleonorae, Iandumoema uai, Pseudochthonius biseriatus, Trichomycterus itacarambiensis
88 Parque Nacional de Itatiaia
Biome: Atlantic Forest
Trigger-species: Euptychia boulleti
89 Parque Natural Municipal da Serra de São Domingos
Biome: Atlantic Forest
Trigger-species: Bokermannohyla vulcaniae
90 Pirapora
Biome: Cerrado
Trigger-species: Hypsolebias nielseni
91 Poços de Caldas
Biome: Atlantic Forest
Trigger-species: Proceratophrys palustris
92 Ribeirão Entre Rios
Biome: Cerrado
Trigger-species: Hypsolebias virgulatus
93 Rio Canoas
Biome: Cerrado
Trigger-species: Aegla franca
94 Rio Carandaí
Biome: Atlantic Forest
Trigger-species: Microlepidogaster perforatus
95 Rio Carangola
Biome: Atlantic Forest
Trigger-species: Mesoclemmys hogei
96 Rio das Tabocas
Biome: Cerrado
Trigger-species: Hypsolebias auratus
97 Rio Matipó
Biome: Atlantic Forest
Trigger-species: Pareiorhaphis nasuta
98 São Francisco
Biome: Cerrado
Trigger-species: Hypsolebias rufus
99 Serra da Mantiqueira
Biome: Atlantic Forest
Trigger-species: Holoaden luederwaldti, Orobrassolis ornamentalis
100 Simonésia
Biome: Atlantic Forest
Trigger-species: Epiperipatus adenocryptus
101 Alto Rio Pavuna
Biome: Atlantic Forest
Trigger-species: Leptolebias opalescens
102 Bacia do Rio Estrela
Biome: Atlantic Forest
Trigger-species: Listrura nematopteryx
103 Baía de Ilha Grande
Biome: Atlantic Forest
Trigger-species: Atlantirivulus lazzarotoi, Atlantirivulus simplicis, Formicivora erythronotos
104 Floresta Estadual Mário Xavier
Biome: Atlantic Forest
Trigger-species: Physalaemus soaresi
105 Lagos Fluminenses
Biome: Atlantic Forest
Trigger-species: Atlantirivulus maricensis, Formicivora littoralis, Listrura tetraradiata, Nematolebias catimbau, Nematolebias papilliferus, Notholebias fractifasciatus
106 Nova Iguaçu
Biome: Atlantic Forest
Trigger-species: Leptolebias marmoratus
107 Parque Nacional da Tijuca
Biome: Atlantic Forest
Trigger-species: Pseudocroniades machaon seabrai
108 Praia de Itaipu
Trigger-species: Petaloconchus myrakeenae
109 ARIE Ilhas de Queimada Grande e Queimada Pequena
Trigger-species: Bothrops insularis, Scinax peixotoi
110 Cananéia
Biome: Atlantic Forest
Trigger-species: Leontopithecus caissara
111 Estação Ecológica Ribeirão Preto
Biome: Atlantic Forest
Trigger-species: Cartagonum apiuba, Lycomorphon brasiliense
112 Foz de Iguape
Biome: Atlantic Forest
Trigger-species: Campellolebias dorsimaculatus
113 Gruta da Toca
Biome: Cerrado
Trigger-species: Pseudonannolene tocaiensis
114 Parque Estadual Carlos Botelho
Biome: Atlantic Forest
Trigger-species: Brachyteles arachnoides
115 Parque Estadual Caverna do Diabo
Biome: Atlantic Forest
Trigger-species: Arrhopalites lawrencei
116 Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar
Biome: Atlantic Forest
Trigger-species: Listrura camposi, Pseudotocinclus juquiae
117 Parque Estadual de Ilhabela
Biome: Atlantic Forest
Trigger-species: Bothrops otavioi, Charinus asturius, Gonyostomus insularis, Phyllomys thomasi
118 Parque Estadual Intervales
Biome: Atlantic Forest
Trigger-species: Aegla leptochela, Arrhopalites heteroculatus
119 Parque Estadual Turístico do Alto Ribeira
Biome: Atlantic Forest
Trigger-species: Aegla cavernícola, Aegla microphthalma, Arrhopalites alambariensis, Arrhopalites amorimi, Arrhopalites gnaspinii, Cryptops (Trigonocryptops) iporangensis, Leodesmus yporangae, Maxchernes iporangae, Pachylospeleus strinatii, Pararrhopalites wallacei, Pimelodella kronei, Potamolithus karsticus, Potamolithus troglobius, Progarypus nigrimanus
120 Refúgio da Vida Silvestre de Alcatrazes e Estação Ecológica Tupinambás
Trigger-species: Cycloramphus faustoi, Ololygon alcatraz, Bothrops alcatraz
121 Ribeirão Grande
Biome: Atlantic Forest
Trigger-species: Neoplecostomus selenae
122 Rio Juquiá
Biome: Atlantic Forest
Trigger-species: Campellolebias intermedius
123 São Pedro
Biome: Cerrado
Trigger-species: Aegla perobae
124 São Sebastião
Trigger-species: Eunice sebastiani, Synaptula secreta, Willeya loya
125 Bacia do Rio Jordão
Biome: Atlantic Forest
Trigger-species: Jenynsia diphyes
126 Bacia do rio Tibaji
Biome: Atlantic Forest
Trigger-species: Isbrueckerichthys saxicola
127 Gruta do Varzeão
Biome: Atlantic Forest
Trigger-species: Coarazuphium ricardoi
128 Monumento Natural Gruta da Lancinha
Biome: Atlantic Forest
Trigger-species: Arrhopalites paranaensis
129 Parque Estadual da Serra de Baitaca
Biome: Atlantic Forest
Trigger-species: Brachycephalus pernix
130 Arroio Bagé
Biome: Pampa
Trigger-species: Austrolebias vazferreirai
131 Cabeceiras do Rio Caraguatá
Biome: Atlantic Forest
Trigger-species: Characidium vestigipinne
132 Costões do Rio Grande
Biome: Marinho-Costeiro
Trigger-species: Olivancillaria contortuplicata, Olivancillaria teaguei
133 Lago Guaíba
Biome: Pampa
Trigger-species: Diplodon (Rhipidodonta) koseritzi
134 Lagos de Osório
Biome: Pampa
Trigger-species: Odontesthes bicudo
135 Parque Estadual do Espinilho
Biome: Pampa
Trigger-species: Coryphistera alaudina, Gubernatrix cristata, Leptasthenura platensis
136 Passo Fundo
Biome: Atlantic Forest
Trigger-species: Atractus thalesdelemai
137 Pontal da Barra
Biome: Atlantic Forest
Trigger-species: Austrolebias nigrofasciatus
138 Rio Caí
Biome: Atlantic Forest
Trigger-species: Aegla renana
139 Rio Forqueta
Biome: Atlantic Forest
Trigger-species: Melanophryniscus admirabilis
140 Rio Jaguarão
Biome: Pampa
Trigger-species: Austrolebias cheradophilus
141 Sul Atlântico
Trigger-species: Polyprion americanus
142 Imbituba
Biome: Atlantic Forest
Trigger-species: Tropidurus imbituba
143 Parque Estadual da Serra do Tabuleiro
Biome: Atlantic Forest
Trigger-species: Cavia intermedia
144 Parque Natural Municipal das Grutas de Botuverá
Biome: Atlantic Forest
Trigger-species: Arrhopalites botuveraensis
145 Rio Matador
Biome: Atlantic Forest
Trigger-species: Aegla brevipalma
146 Rio Pinheiros de Barra do Sul
Biome: Atlantic Forest
Trigger-species: Campellolebias chrysolineatus


APPENDIX 2: List of Brazilian Alliance for Zero Extinction (BAZE) trigger-species by taxonomic group. Respective BAZE site is indicated by number.

Terrestrial Invertebrates


Avicularia gamba 29

Charinus asturius 137

Charinus eleonorae 68

Charinus troglobius 30

Drymusa spelunca 88

Eukoenenia maquinensis 100

Eukoenenia sagarana 61

Eukoenenia spelunca 46

Eukoenenia virgemdalapa 63

Eusarcus elinae 28

Hadrurochactas brejo 36

Harmonicon cerberus 88

Ianduba paubrasil 44

Iandumoema uai 68

Isoctenus corymbus 52

Leptokoenenia pelada 91

Lygromma ybyguara 100

Maxchernes iporangae 139

Metagonia diamantina 19

Metagonia potiguar 82

Ochyrocera ibitipoca 137

Pachylospeleus strinatii 139

Progarypus nigrimanus 139

Pseudochthonius biseriatus 68

Rhopalurus lacrau 19

Rowlandius ubajara 37

Spelaeobochica allodentatus 28

Spelaeobochica iuiu 18

Spinopilar moria 61

Tmesiphantes hypogeus 21

Typhochlaena curumim 92


Cryptops (Trigonocryptops) iporangensis 139

Scolopendropsis duplicata 146


Glomeridesmus spelaeus 91

Leodesmus yporangae 139

Pseudonannolene imbirensis 52

Pseudonannolene tocaiensis 135


Arrhopalites alambariensis 139

Arrhopalites amorimi 139

Arrhopalites botuveraensis 129

Arrhopalites gnaspinii 139

Arrhopalites heteroculatus 138

Arrhopalites lawrencei 103

Arrhopalites paranaensis 64

Pararrhopalites papaveroi 87

Pararrhopalites wallacei 139

Troglobius brasiliensis 113

Troglobius ferroicus 65


Gonyostomus insularis 137

Succinea lopesi 47

Thaumastus lundi 67


Cartagonum apiuba 133

Ceracis cassumbensis 15

Coarazuphium cessaima 19

Coarazuphium ricardoi 99

Coarazuphium tapiaguassu 91

Coarazuphium tessai 13

Copelatus cessaima 88

Euptychia boulleti 79

Gnamptogenys wilsoni 16

Hermanella amere 48

Leptagrion acutum 32

Lycomorphon brasiliense 133

Morpho epistrophus nikolajewna 140

Orobrassolis ornamentalis 81

Parides klagesi 90

Pseudocroniades machaon seabrai 109

Stigmatomma cleae 17


Epiperipatus adenocryptus 78

Epiperipatus paurognostus 58

Aquatic Invertebrates


Condylactis gigantea 23


Diplodon (Rhipidodonta) koseritzi 117


Racekiela cavernicola 14


Willeya loya 144


Olivancillaria contortuplicata 125

Olivancillaria teaguei 125

Petaloconchus myrakeenae 110

Potamolithus karsticus 139

Potamolithus troglobius 139

Spiripockia punctata 30


Synaptula secreta 144


Aegla brevipalma 130

Aegla cavernicola 139

Aegla franca 80

Aegla leptochela 138

Aegla microphthalma 139

Aegla perobae 143

Aegla renana 12


Eunice sebastiani 144

Continental Fish


Odontesthes bicudo 118


Characidium vestigipinne 116

Hasemania piatan 9

Kolpotocheirodon figueiredoi 28

Lepidocharax diamantina 28

Prochilodus britskii 85

Stygichthys typhlops 62


Anablepsoides cearensis 38

Atlantirivulus lazzarotoi 111

Atlantirivulus maricensis 107

Atlantirivulus nudiventris 45

Atlantirivulus simplicis 111

Austrolebias cheradophilus 124

Austrolebias nigrofasciatus 121

Austrolebias vazferreirai 115

Campellolebias chrysolineatus 131

Campellolebias dorsimaculatus 134

Campellolebias intermedius 142

Cynolebias griseus 53

Cynolebias leptocephalus 25

Hypsolebias auratus 75

Hypsolebias ghisolfii 25

Hypsolebias marginatus 54

Hypsolebias multiradiatus 145

Hypsolebias nielseni 70

Hypsolebias rufus 77

Hypsolebias tocantinensis 56

Hypsolebias virgulatus 72

Jenynsia diphyes 97

Leptolebias marmoratus 108

Leptolebias opalescens 104

Mucurilebias leitaoi 8

Nematolebias catimbau 107

Nematolebias papilliferus 107

Notholebias fractifasciatus 107

Ophthalmolebias bokermanni 16

Ophthalmolebias ilheusensis 20

Ophthalmolebias perpendicularis 34

Pamphorichthys pertapeh 55

Phalloptychus eigenmanni 27

Pituna xinguensis 89

Plesiolebias altamira 89

Simpsonichthys santanae 41

Spectrolebias reticulatus 89

Xenurolebias izecksohni 43


Apteronotus lindalvae 6

Sternarchorhynchus higuchii 6

Sternarchorhynchus jaimei 6


Ancistrus cryptophthalmus 52

Isbrueckerichthys saxicola 98

Ituglanis bambui 52

Ituglanis cahyensis 26

Ituglanis mambai 51

Listrura camposi 112

Listrura nematopteryx 105

Listrura tetraradiata 107

Microlepidogaster perforatus 73

Neoplecostomus selenae 141

Pareiorhaphis nasuta 76

Pimelodella kronei 139

Pimelodella spelaea 52

Pseudotocinclus juquiae 112

Trichogenes claviger 50

Trichomycterus itacarambiensis 68

Trichomycterus novalimensis 60

Sea Fish


Polyprion americanus 126

Scarus trispinosus 23





Allobates brunneus 83

Aparasphenodon pomba 59

Bokermannohyla vulcaniae 69

Brachycephalus pernix 101

Crossodactylus dantei 1

Crossodactylus lutzorum 31

Cycloramphus faustoi 93

Holoaden luederwaldti 81

Melanophryniscus admirabilis 123

Melanophryniscus setiba 49

Ololygon alcatraz 93

Physalaemus soaresi 106

Proceratophrys palustris 71

Proceratophrys sanctaritae 7

Scinax peixotoi 132



Amphisbaena arda 11

Amphisbaena supernumeraria 95

Amphisbaena uroxena 12


Calyptommatus nicterus 11

Calyptommatus sinebrachiatus 11

Enyalius erythroceneus 12

Eurolophosaurus amathites 11

Heterodactylus septentrionalis 12

Procellosaurinus tetradactylus 10

Tropidurus imbituba 127

Chelonia (inland)

Mesoclemmys hogei 74


Apostolepis gaboi 11

Apostolepis serrana 84

Apostolepis striata 86

Atractus caete 4

Atractus thalesdelemai 120

Bothrops alcatraz 93

Bothrops insularis 132

Bothrops muriciensis 1

Bothrops otavioi 137

Rodriguesophis chui 11

Typhlops yonenagae 11

Sea turtles

Dermochelys coriacea 42

Eretmochelys imbricata 94



Brachyteles arachnoides 136

Leontopithecus caissara 102

Rodents and Lagomorpha

Cavia intermedia 128

Ctenomys bicolor 114

Phyllomys thomasi 137



Leptodon forbesi 2


Crax blumenbachii 43

Crax fasciolata pinima 57

Odontophorus capueira plumbeicollis 39

Pauxi mitu 3


Antilophia bokermanni 40

Coryphistera alaudina 119

Formicivora erythronotos 111

Formicivora grantsaui 21

Formicivora littoralis 107

Gubernatrix cristata 119

Leptasthenura platensis 119

Merulaxis stresemanni 33

Nemosia rourei 50

Sclerurus caudacutus caligineus 1

Sclerurus caudacutus umbretta 43

Thamnophilus nigrocinereus tschudii 5


Phaethon aethereus 23

Phaethon lepturus 96


Celeus flavus subflavus 43

Selenidera gouldii baturitensis 39


Pterodroma arminjoniana 47

Puffinus lherminieri 96


Anodorhynchus leari 24

Cyanopsitta spixii 35


Fregata ariel 47

Fregata minor 47

Sula sula 96


Discosura langsdorffi langsdorffi 22


Trogon collaris eytoni

APPENDIX 3: Brazilian Alliance for Zero Extinction (BAZE) site map. Site 73 – Ilha de Trindade, located over 1.2 km east from the coastline of Espirito Santo State, is not displayed for graphical reasons.