The development of the Brazilian Alliance for Extinction Zero (BAZE) updated site list and conservation strategy was written by Fundação Biodiversitas in partnership with American Bird Conservancy, BirdLife International, Global Environment Facility and the Brazilian Ministry of the Environment. Authors: Cássio Soares Martins (Fundação Biodiversitas), Gláucia Moreira Drummond (Fundação Biodiversitas), Marina Schmoeller do Prado Rodrigues (Fundação Biodiversitas). This document is available below or for download here. Part 1. Overview of AZE and BAZE sites in Brazil The Brazilian Alliance for Zero Extinction (BAZE) officially started its activities in 2006, when a Protocol for Action was signed by then Minister of the Environment Marina Silva. The Protocol was a product of a partnership including Fundação Biodiversitas, the Brazilian Ministry of the Environment and other Brazilian institutions devoted to biodiversity conservation. The Protocol was accompanied by the legal recognition of BAZE through a Ministerial Ordinance (Portaria MMA nº 182/2006). The goal of BAZE is to reinforce the mission of the global AZE in Brazil, but also to: Value national science and knowledge by using the Brazilian Red List of Threatened Species as a reference, instead of IUCN’s global Red List; Engage national researchers and institutions in the selection of species and design of sites, to increase both the precision and the impact of the results; Articulate conservation policy and strategies in national, regional and local levels, engaging stakeholders in all such levels and publicizing the need to protect BAZE sites and their trigger species; Gather among its members representatives from several institutions involved in the conservation and protection of threatened species in Brazil, to potentialize the chances of success for any initiative that might derive from BAZE. Prior to 2016, there were 40 AZE sites identified in Brazilian territory, for 50 species. In turn, the first Brazilian Alliance for Zero Extinction (BAZE) map had identified 32 sites for 36 species in 2010, of which 15 corresponded to AZE sites. After the updates in both AZE and BAZE sites lists and maps, those numbers changed from 40 to 22 (excluding flora) and from 32 to 146, respectively. The significant growth in the BAZE list is mainly due to the similar increase in comprehensiveness of the Brazilian Red List of Threatened Species assessment, used as a reference for the analysis. Similarly, the differences between AZE and BAZE lists come from different species threat status in the global IUCN Red List and in the Brazilian Red List. The current BAZE map indicates 146 for 230 species of fauna (Appendix 1), distributed in all Brazilian biomes, except for Pantanal. The species are distributed among 6 taxonomic groups (Terrestrial Invertebrates, Aquatic Invertebrates, Continental Fishes, Marine Fishes, Sea Turtles and Terrestrial Vertebrates; Appendix 2), as indicated in Figure 1. In general, there were more trigger species among Rivulidae fish (Rivulidae, 34 species), followed by Arachnida terrestrial invertebrates (Arachnida, 31 species) and Vertebrates in the classes Aves (30 species) and Reptilia (22 species). Among aquatic invertebrates, the classes Gastropoda (7 species) and Malacostraca (6 species) stand out. Of the 230 trigger species, 159 (approximately 70%) are classified as “Critically Endangered” (CR) by the last national assessment (Portaria No. 444/2014). The others, except for an Extinct in Nature (EW; Pauxi mitu) and a Probably Extinct in Nature (CR (PEW); Cyanopsitta spixii) are evaluated as Endangered. The majority (75%) of the sites were defined for only one trigger species, but five sites (6%) were defined for five or more species, and the Parque Estadual Turístico do Alto Ribeira is the site with the highest number of trigger species (14 species). Only 14 BAZE sites correspond to Alliance Global Zero Extinction sites (Table 1) due to the use of different Red Lists as reference, as explained earlier. Table 1: List of BAZE sites (2018) and corresponding global AZE sites (2018). Figure 1 – Graphs indicating the distribution of trigger species in taxonomic groups. Larger groups follow the division proposed by Chico Mendes Institute for Biodiversity Conservation (ICMBio). during the species threat assessment process. There are no graphs representing Marine Fish and Sea Turtles, since only two species were selected in each group. For a detailed account, see Appendix 2. The sites are distributed throughout the regions and in almost all Brazilian states except Sergipe, Acre, Amapá and Roraima. The states with the largest number of sites were Bahia (25) and Minas Gerais (21), as well as two other sites on the border between the two States. More than 50% of the sites are in the Atlantic Forest (74 sites), with another 30% divided between the Cerrado (26 sites) and the Caatinga (18 sites), concentrated in the Southeast and Northeast regions (Figure 2). The sites added together cover an area of over 8 million hectares, with individual areas varying from 39 ha (Imbituba) to nearly 1 million ha (Chapada do Araripe), as indicated in Figure 3. The complete list of sites is available on Appendix 1, and the preliminary map of sites can be seen in Appendix 3. Figure 2: Number of Brazilian Alliance for Zero Extinction (BAZE) by Brazilian region and biome. Figure 3: Frequency distribution of Brazilian Alliance for Zero Extinction (BAZE) sites according to total calculated area (in hectares), highlighting the concentration of sites with areas between a thousand and 50 thousand hectares (k = thousand; mil = million). The largest site, Chapada do Araripe, has an area of nearly one million hectares; the smallest, in turn, has only around 40 hectares. Subsequently, a gap analyses looking at which BAZE sites are protected, partially-protected and unprotected was conducted. We chose to use national and state-level information on protected areas (i.e., Conservation Units), more up-to-date and comprehensive than the Wold Database on Protected Areas (WDPA). The Brazilian Protected Areas include Indigenous Territories and Conservation Units, but for the purpose of the analysis, only Conservation Units were considered, once the government has no jurisdiction over Indigenous Territories. Further, the Brazilian System of Conservation Unities (Sistema Brasileiro de Unidades de Conservação – SNUC; Lei 9985/2000) divides protection categories in two large groups: Sustainable Use (Uso Sustentável – US), which allows for some degree of resource use or extraction, and Full Protection (Proteção Integral – PI), limited to recreational and/or research uses. Within these groups, there are 12 categories, with the best equivalency with IUCN’s Protected Area Categories indicated in Table XXX, together with a brief description of their purposes and limitations. Table 2: Categories of Conservation Units in Brazil, according to the National System on Conservation Units (SNUC; Lei 9985/2000) and their approximate equivalency to IUCN Protected Area Categories. When overlapping sites with Conservation Units, we considered “Protected” only sites completely within a PI Conservation Unit. When a site was partially covered by a PI or covered in any level by one or more US Conservation Units, we determined it was “Partially Protected”. Sites designated as “Unprotected” are not covered in any extent by any Conservation Unit, to the best of our knowledge. According to site overlap analysis with spatial data from protected areas, 59 sites (41%) are not under any formal protection and another 52 (33%) are only partially protected. Thus, only 35 sites are fully protected, with 25 Parks (15 state, 9 national and 1 municipal), four Natural Monuments, three Biological Reserves, two Wildlife Refuges and two Ecological Stations. It is important to notice that the “Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Natural” (RPPN) category is close in restrictions to the PI areas. Thus, if we consider site protected by RPPN under PI, the number of “Protected” sites rises to 37, due to the sites RPPN Fazenda Jequitibá and RPPN Fazenda Klagesi. Part 2. Methods for the identification of BAZE sites and gap analysis The production of the BAZE site map was strategically divided into two stages, referred to as “Candidate species selection” and “Site delimitation”, with expert reviews incorporated to both and at the end of the full process, to ensure scientific quality of the final product. Outlined below are the key steps taken in each stage and a detailed description of each one. A. Candidate species selection Obtaining distribution data and assessment information on threatened species The spatial data used to evaluate threatened species were provided to Fundação Biodiversitas by the Chico Mendes Institute for Biodiversity Conservation (ICMBio). Data were obtained for all threatened species in the Vulnerable (VU, 448 species), Endangered (EN, 409 species) and Critically Endangered (CR, 319 species) categories, but only EN and CR were considered (total 728 species). Data precision varied considerably; for 150 species, mostly mammals and reptiles, only estimated distribution polygons were provided, while for the remaining 578 the occurrence record points were also made available, which could be very precise (up to 10km from the exact location of the record) to very generic (municipality centroid). Species evaluations on the ICMBio portal, complementary to the database, were also consulted. Information on species biology and distribution on the portal were not always sufficient to inform decisions for some species, mainly because some of the species description pages are still under preparation. In such cases, auxiliary bibliography was consulted to obtain data necessary for the evaluation of the species, in particular the Red Book of the Brazilian Fauna Threatened with Extinction (Fundação Biodiversitas, 2008) and species description papers. 2. Construction of a geographic database, initial assessment of fauna data and exploratory analyses The data provided was integrated into a geographic database using ArcGIS 10.2. In the same database, data on political divisions (national, state and municipal boundaries), special areas (Protected areas, divided in Conservation Units and Indigenous Territories, Priority Areas for Conservation and Ecological Corridors), river basins, biomes and roads were added to support decision making during the selection of candidate trigger species for BAZE sites. These are species that are likely to lead to (i.e., trigger), the identification of a BAZE site. Several exploratory spatial analyses were conducted to find strategies to evaluate the species according to AZE criteria. Based on the results of these analyses and an initial assessment of terrestrial vertebrate groups (Amphibians, Birds, Mammals and Reptiles; a total of 124 species), three classification groups were created: Candidate species, Potential species and Non-candidate species. The candidate species were divided into five subgroups, differentiating species occurring only in one location, species occurring mostly in one location and species occurring in only one location or predominantly in a location at a particular stage of their life cycle. Potential species were also subdivided, differentiating species that met most of the criteria, but whose data were not sufficiently reliable for decision making, either due to taxonomic confusion or data scarcity, and species that are likely to meet the criteria in the future if their threats are not reduced or removed. Each of the 728 species of fauna listed as Endangered or Critically Endangered by the Brazilian Ministry of the Environment Ordinance 444/2014 (Portaria MMA No. 444/2014) was individually assessed to assign it to one of the eight groups explained above. In cases where the available data were inconclusive, species were marked with an asterisk (*) to indicate the need for special attention during the review by specialists (see below). 3. Review by specialists The list of classified species was divided by taxonomic group and by the working group to which it was associated during the latest species Red List assessment by ICMBio. Only species judged to have the potential to become triggers for BAZE sites (Candidate species) and those with an asterisk mark (*) were referred for review, but researchers were free to offer suggestions of species to include. The researchers contacted were those nominated by ICMBio as coordinators of taxa during the last threatened species assessment, which generated the list published in the Ministry of the Environment Ordinance No. 444/2014, on which the map is based. When these researchers were not found, could not or did not wish to participate, other indicated specialists were sought. Each of the researchers received a formal request for revision by electronic mail, together with a document explaining the nature, purpose and methodology of AZE and BAZE, and a list of species specific to the expertise of each researcher. The contributions of the researchers were added in a new selection worksheet, with groups modified according to the corrections made. Before the next stage started, about 84% of the species (612) had been reviewed by the researchers. Of the species without review, 29 were pre-selected as Candidates and 14 as Potentials. The reviews resulted in 127 species (20% of the reviewed and 17% of the total) changing classification, 19 becoming Candidates, 95 Potentials and 13 Non-candidates. The overall accuracy of the pre-selection can be considered, then, to be around 80%, demonstrating the importance of the review process to improve the overall quality of the final product. B. Site delimitation Mapping of sites for candidate BAZE species After review by the researchers, results were integrated into the ArcGIS database for spatial design of sites. Only species classified as Candidate had sites outlined, while others will only be indicated in text when the map is published. During this stage, broader research about the distribution and habitat requirements of species was made through searches in specific literature. Each preliminary site was indicated by a point, to which additional information was added regarding: trigger species, site focal habitat (inland aquatic, terrestrial, marine, caves, coastal or islands), designated according to the habitat of trigger species, biome and protection status. The preliminary map with the approximate locations of the future sites was shared with the researchers involved in the previous steps of the project for validation. The selected species and their localities of occurrence were validated, and necessary corrections were made. 2. Spatial delimitation of sites The sites were delineated according to the methodology adapted from two IUCN publications of the identification of KBAs (Key Biodiversity Areas), A Global Standard for the Identification of Key Biodiversity Areas, (2016) and Identification and Gap Analysis of Key Biodiversity Areas (2007). According to this method, there is no lower or upper limit of size, but the enclosed area should be sufficient to meet the ecological needs of the species and to facilitate management. It is important to highlight that the boundaries of the sites are not fixed and can be altered as new information on the biology and distribution of the species and on the socio-political context of the site is acquired, to improve management efficiency. The delineation phases can be summarized as follows: a. Definition of relevant spatial data and assembly in Geographic Information System (GIS) At this stage, spatial information was used to differentiate between the area where the species occurs and the area with little or no chance of occupancy by the species. For example, relief and hydrographical information were essential in the definition of sites for aquatic species, since a species with restricted occurrence in a particular basin is unlikely to occur in a basin of another main river. We decided to use only official databases, made available by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE), the Ministry of the Environment (MMA), the Brazilian Geological Survey (CPRM) and other national and state official bodies. Each analysis used a specific group of databases, considering species ecology and maneuverability. b. Definition of limits based on ecological information The essential area for the conservation of the species was designated considering its ecological characteristics. For example, for forest-exclusive species, the largest continuous forest area with occurrence of the species was defined as a site. The same method was used for species in other terrestrial habitats (e.g., dunes, rupestrian fields). Distinctively, freshwater species that occur in a single river and rely on clean water require that the river drainage area be managed to maintain the quality of the habitat. Thus, the site was defined as the smallest section of river basin, as codified by the National Water Agency (levels of Ottobacia; ANA 2007) that contained the species distribution and the relevant drainage area, or as the union of two or more neighboring basin sections. Another example are cave-dwelling species, that depend indirectly on the maintenance of the slope where the cave is located, making it necessary to include this slope in the site to ensure appropriate conservation management. c. Refinement of limits to improve management, considering: The existence of other areas of importance for biodiversity defined for the species or the site, such as KBAs, priority areas of Brazilian biomes, global AZE sites and Important Bird Areas (IBA), seeking to use these existing site boundaries whenever possible to increase the relevance of area conservation and management. The presence of Conservation Units (UC): Extrapolating the boundaries of the site to those of the UC when the latter is larger and when it is sufficient to meet the ecological demands of the species or, Maintaining the limits of the site when it is larger and cannot be reduced to fit the UC’s boundaries. In this case, the extension of the protected area or less restrictive management strategies may be suggested. For Environmental Protection Areas (Áreas de Proteção Ambiental, see Table 2), a Protected Area category that usually encompasses several municipalities and is managed mostly through zoning, with low restrictiveness and enforcement, this criterion was not observed. When a site covered more than one protected area, their limits were used as an aid in setting boundaries, but the main criterion was the ecological demand of the species. Other information relevant to management, such as administrative boundaries (municipal and state), presence of highways, land use, etc. For all sites, the justification for the delineation was described in detail, indicating which databases were used and explaining the decisions made. A delineation table was created, listing the names of the sites, the trigger species associated with it, the detailed justifications for the site delineation and species selection, and the name of the responsible technician. All the sites delimited were reviewed by the project manager at Fundação Biodiversitas. 3. Expert review through online consultation A database containing relevant information for the description and evaluation of the sites was created. This database was made available online for consultation by researchers and invited partners. The included fields are described in Table 3. Before making the online system available for consultation, a round of testing was carried out by the Fundação Biodiversitas technical team, aiming to detect any problems that would make it difficult for third parties to use them. In view of difficulties related to the use of the system and visualizations of the spatial data, a detailed tutorial system was made available on the consultation website and linked to in the invites for participation. Electronic invitations to participate in the online consultation were sent to three lists of recipients, categorized as follows: (i) 75 representatives of governmental environmental agencies (Ministry of Environment – MMA, Chico Mendes Institute for Nature Conservation – ICMBio and The Brazilian Institute for the Environment and Natural Resources – IBAMA), (ii) 23 partners of the Brazilian Alliance for Zero Extinction, and (iii) 556 researchers from universities, research institutes and non-governmental organizations. The main objectives of the online consultation were to validate the design and aggregate knowledge of threats to sites and conservation actions appropriate to their protection. In addition, performing the query in this format, rather than as a workshop with experts, minimized costs and maximized the scope of the project, expanding the number of partners involved in the Alliance and in producing the map. Table 3: Content included in the database of sites of the Brazilian Alliance for Extinction Zero and respective descriptions of each field. A total of 98 people viewed the draft map, mostly from Universities (65 people). Among the registered collaborators, 22 evaluated at least one site, resulting in a total of 28 sites evaluated. The next step was to finalize the map, by fixing all issues raised during the online consultation. One site was removed from the list due to additional information provided by experts and other two sites and respective trigger species were included, totaling the final 146 sites. A gap analysis was conducted by overlapping the final sites with spatial information regarding conservation Units (UCs) obtained from official databases (ICMBio and state-level environmental bodies). In some particular cases, there were strong indications of the presence of a Conservation Unit near the site, but no correspondent polygon was found on the official databases. In those cases, we directly contacted via electronic mail and/or telephone the office responsible for the UC (either at municipality, state or national level) to acquire information and determine whether the site was within the UC. When no confirmation was obtained, we considered the site unprotected. We only considered “protected” sites completely within a Conservation Unity of Full Protection (PI; see Table 2). All other cases with some level of overlap with PI or US Conservation Unities were considered “partially protected”. When no overlap existed, the site was designated “unprotected”. A second analysis, looking at knowledge gaps that hindered or prevented the delimitation of sites, is underway and will be published with the full guide to BAZE sites. Part 3. Development of an AZE/BAZE conservation strategy in Brazil Efforts to develop and strengthen AZE in Brazil so far focused on institutionalizing BAZE, building a strong network of member organizations and integrating the initiative to existing conservation law and strategies. A central aspect is the continuous collaboration with the Ministry for the Environment (MMA) and the Chico Mendes Institute for the Conservation of Nature (ICMBio), that allowed for expert knowledge exchange and participation in any developing initiative for conservation of trigger-species and/or their sites, either directly or indirectly. The first step was to invite the main conservation organizations in the country to affiliate to BAZE, via a formal letter with an adhesion form attached. In total, 34 organizations were officially invited, including previous members (when BAZE was first established in 2006-2008), as well as other prominent non-environmental organizations and research institutes in biodiversity and conservation, and any organizations suggested by the first invitees. Currently (as of June 2018), 16 institutions make up BAZE (Table 4), but any organization whose work involves biodiversity protection and conservation can contact BAZE and ask to join at any time. The members are invited to participate in all stages of the process and will take part on a common agenda after the maps are published. Table 4: List of Brazilian Alliance for Zero Extinction member organizations and respective websites To integrate BAZE in existing law and conservation strategies, we worked closely with MMA and ICMBio on three fronts: Including BAZE, its sites and trigger species in the Brazilian National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan (NBSAP) and Programme of Work on Protected Areas (PoWPA), as established by the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD). A chapter dedicated to BAZE was included in the latest version of Brazilian NBSAP, but the Brazilian government has not yet worked on a new PoWPA (the latest was finalized in 2012); Including actions towards the conservation of trigger species and sites in national and regional Action Plans for Conservation. BAZE actively participated in meetings and virtual rounds to develop action plans for birds of Caatinga and herpetofauna of Serra do Espinhaço, successfully incorporating actions for the trigger-species under their scope; Building a national legal mechanism to recognize BAZE as an organization, and its sites and trigger-species as top priorities for conservation that should be regarded in existing public conservation strategies, funding opportunities and protected area establishment. Since early 2017, Fundação Biodiversitas and MMA dialogued to write an Ordinance (Portaria) defining BAZE and its management structure, trigger-species and sites and proposing protection mechanisms and policies to control site and species exploration. This proposal will revoke the previous Ordinance that recognized BAZE (Portaria No. 182/2006) and reestablish it as a governance structure directly linked to the Ministry but with autonomy to choose its members and management and act according to its statute. The proposed governance structure is enabled by building BAZE Managing Committee as a Thematic Group under the Threatened Species Technical Chamber of the National Commission for Biodiversity (Comissão Nacional da Biodiversidade – CONABIO). That way, the Managing Committee is linked to the Ministry but maintains a level of independence, because it can be formed by members elected periodically from representatives of the institutions affiliated to BAZE. All control and protection mechanisms proposed are based on pre-existing ones from the national law that could be applied to BAZE sites and species. They include resource allocation from environmental damage compensation, creation and expansion of Conservation Units (UC) and land management planning strategies, as well as the mandatory update and publishing of the BAZE sites map, following changes on the Brazilian Red List. Thus, the text observes the limitations an Ordinance poses but still provides clear directives to enable the continuity of BAZE and to promote species and site protection. The proposal is currently under review by the Ministry of the Environment Legal Department and should be signed as soon as the new BAZE map and its full development methodology is published. APPENDIX 1: List of Brazilian Alliance for Zero Extinction (BAZE) sites and respective triggers species. 1 Ilhas do Madeira Biome: Amazonia Trigger-species: Thamnophilus nigrocinereus tschudii 2 Rio Uatumã Biome: Amazonia Trigger-species: Apteronotus lindalvae, Sternarchorhynchus higuchii, Sternarchorhynchus jaimei 3 Caverna do Limoeiro Biome: Amazonia Trigger-species: Troglobius brasiliensis 4 Floresta Nacional de Carajás Biome: Amazonia Trigger-species: Drymusa spelunca, Harmonicon cerberus, Copelatus cessaima 5 Ilha do Arapujá – Belo Monte Biome: Amazonia Trigger-species: Pituna xinguensis, Plesiolebias altamira, Spectrolebias reticulatus 6 Reserva Biológica de Gurupi Biome: Amazonia Trigger-species: Crax fasciolata pinima 7 RPPN Reserva Klagesi Biome: Amazonia Trigger-species: Parides klagesi 8 Serra Pelada Biome: Amazonia Trigger-species: Glomeridesmus spelaeus, Leptokoenenia pelada, Coarazuphium tapiaguassu 9 Pimenta Bueno Biome: Amazonia Trigger-species: Ctenomys bicolor 10 Vilhena Biome: Amazonia, Cerrado Trigger-species: Apostolepis striata 11 Brejinho de Nazaré Biome: Cerrado Trigger-species: Hypsolebias multiradiatus 12 Porto Nacional Biome: Cerrado Trigger-species: Scolopendropsis duplicata 13 Estação Ecológica de Murici Biome: Atlantic Forest Trigger-species: Crossodactylus dantei, Bothrops muriciensis, Sclerurus caudacutus caligineus 14 Matriz de Camaragibe Biome: Atlantic Forest Trigger-species: Leptodon forbesi 15 Reserva Biológica de Pedra Talhada Biome: Atlantic Forest Trigger-species: Atractus caete 16 Rio Largo Biome: Atlantic Forest Trigger-species: Pauxi mitu 17 Amargosa Biome: Atlantic Forest Trigger-species: Proceratophrys sanctaritae 18 Baixo Rio Mucuri Biome: Atlantic Forest Trigger-species: Mucurilebias leitaoi 19 Bandeira Biome: Atlantic Forest Trigger-species: Merulaxis stresemanni 20 Cabeceiras do Rio de Contas Biome: Caatinga Trigger-species: Hasemania piatan 21 Casa Nova Biome: Caatinga Trigger-species: Procellosaurinus tetradactylus 22 Curaçá Biome: Caatinga Trigger-species: Cyanopsitta spixii 23 Dunas do Médio São Francisco Biome: Caatinga, Cerrado Trigger-species: Amphisbaena arda, Apostolepis gaboi, Calyptommatus nicterus, Calyptommatus sinebrachiatus, Eurolophosaurus amathites, Rodriguesophis chui, Typhlops yonenagae 24 Fazenda Caraíbas Biome: Caatinga Trigger-species: Amphisbaena uroxena, Enyalius erythroceneus, Heterodactylus septentrionalis 25 Gruta do Padre Biome: Cerrado Trigger-species: Coarazuphium tessai 26 Gruta dos Brejões Biome: Caatinga Trigger-species: Racekiela cavernicola 27 Ilha de Cassumba Biome: Atlantic Forest Trigger-species: Ceracis cassumbensis 28 Ilhéus Biome: Atlantic Forest Trigger-species: Gnamptogenys wilsoni, Ophthalmolebias bokermanni 29 Itororó Biome: Atlantic Forest Trigger-species: Stigmatomma cleae 30 Lapa do Baixão Biome: Cerrado Trigger-species: Spelaeobochica iuiu 31 Lapa do Bode Biome: Caatinga Trigger-species: Coarazuphium cessaima, Metagonia diamantina, Rhopalurus lacrau 32 Parque Estadual Ponta da Tulha Biome: Atlantic Forest Trigger-species: Ophthalmolebias ilheusensis 33 Parque Nacional da Chapada Diamantina Biome: Caatinga Trigger-species: Formicivora grantsaui, Tmesiphantes hypogeus 34 Parque Nacional da Serra das Lontras Biome: Atlantic Forest Trigger-species: Discosura langsdorffi langsdorffi 35 Parque Nacional Marinho de Abrolhos Trigger-species: Condylactis gigantea, Phaethon aethereus, Scarus trispinosus 36 Raso da Catarina – Canudos Biome: Caatinga Trigger-species: Anodorhynchus leari 37 Reserva Biológica de Córrego Grande Biome: Atlantic Forest Trigger-species: Leptagrion acutum 38 Riacho das Rãs Biome: Caatinga Trigger-species: Cynolebias leptocephalus, Hypsolebias ghisolfii 39 Ribeirão do Salto Biome: Atlantic Forest Trigger-species: Ophthalmolebias perpendicularis 40 Rio das Antas Biome: Atlantic Forest Trigger-species: Ituglanis cahyensis 41 Rio Pojuca Biome: Atlantic Forest Trigger-species: Phalloptychus eigenmanni 42 Rio Santo Antônio Biome: Caatinga Trigger-species: Eusarcus elinae, Kolpotocheirodon figueiredoi, Lepidocharax diamantina, Spelaeobochica allodentatus 43 RPPN Reserva Jequitibá Biome: Atlantic Forest Trigger-species: Avicularia gamba 44 Serra do Ramalho Biome: Cerrado Trigger-species: Charinus troglobius, Spiripockia punctata 45 Valença Biome: Atlantic Forest Trigger-species: Crossodactylus lutzorum 46 Chapada do Araripe Biome: Caatinga Trigger-species: Antilophia bokermanni 47 Maranguape Biome: Caatinga Trigger-species: Hadrurochactas brejo 48 Parque Nacional de Ubajara Biome: Caatinga Trigger-species: Rowlandius ubajara 49 Riacho do Tique Biome: Caatinga Trigger-species: Anablepsoides cearensis 50 Serra do Baturité Biome: Caatinga Trigger-species: Odontophorus capueira plumbeicollis, Selenidera gouldii baturitensis 51 Campestre do Maranhão Biome: Cerrado Trigger-species: Hypsolebias tocantinensis 52 Parque Estadual da Mata do Pau-Ferro Biome: Caatinga Trigger-species: Typhochlaena curumim 53 Refúgio da Vida Silvestre Mata do Buraquinho Biome: Atlantic Forest Trigger-species: Morpho epistrophus nikolajewna 54 Tibau do Sul Biome: Atlantic Forest Trigger-species: Eretmochelys imbricata 55 Parque Nacional do Catimbau Biome: Caatinga Trigger-species: Amphisbaena supernumeraria 56 Parque Nacional Marinho de Fernando de Noronha Trigger-species: Phaethon lepturus, Puffinus lherminieri, Sula sula 57 Caverna do Vale Biome: Caatinga Trigger-species: Metagonia potiguar 58 Ribeirão Santana Biome: Cerrado Trigger-species: Simpsonichthys santanae 59 Lagoa Perta-pé Biome: Cerrado Trigger-species: Pamphorichthys pertapeh 60 Lapa do Sumidouro Biome: Cerrado Trigger-species: Ituglanis mambai 61 Parque Estadual de Terra Ronca Biome: Cerrado Trigger-species: Ancistrus cryptophthalmus, Isoctenus corymbus, Ituglanis bambui, Pimelodella spelaea, Pseudonannolene imbirensis 62 Rio Claro de Goiás Biome: Cerrado Trigger-species: Cynolebias griseus 63 Rio dos Patos Biome: Cerrado Trigger-species: Hypsolebias marginatus 64 Caverna João de Arruda Biome: Cerrado Trigger-species: Pararrhopalites papaveroi 65 Chapada dos Guimarães Biome: Cerrado Trigger-species: Allobates brunneus 66 Ribeirão Cascalheira Biome: Cerrado Trigger-species: Apostolepis serrana 67 Rio Arinos Biome: Amazonia Trigger-species: Prochilodus britskii 68 Comboios – Povoação Biome: Atlantic Forest Trigger-species: Dermochelys coriacea 69 Complexo Sooretama – Linhares Biome: Atlantic Forest Trigger-species: Celeus flavus subflavus, Crax blumenbachii, Sclerurus caudacutus umbretta, Trogon collaris eytoni, Xenurolebias izecksohni 70 Floresta Nacional do Rio Preto Biome: Atlantic Forest Trigger-species: Ianduba paubrasil 71 Foz do Rio Itapemirim Biome: Atlantic Forest Trigger-species: Atlantirivulus nudiventris 72 Gruta Archimides Passini Biome: Atlantic Forest Trigger-species: Eukoenenia spelunca 73 Ilha de Trindade Trigger-species: Fregata ariel, Fregata minor, Pterodroma arminjoniana, Succinea lopesi 74 Parque Estadual da Cachoeira da Fumaça Biome: Atlantic Forest Trigger-species: Hermanella amere 75 Parque Estadual Paulo César Vinha Biome: Atlantic Forest Trigger-species: Melanophryniscus setiba 76 Vargem Alta Biome: Atlantic Forest Trigger-species: Nemosia rourei, Trichogenes claviger 77 Caratinga Biome: Atlantic Forest Trigger-species: Epiperipatus paurognostus 78 Cataguases Biome: Atlantic Forest Trigger-species: Aparasphenodon pomba 79 Córrego do Mutuca Biome: Atlantic Forest Trigger-species: Trichomycterus novalimensis 80 Gruta da Morena Biome: Cerrado Trigger-species: Eukoenenia sagarana, Spinopilar moria 81 Lençol do Rio Verde Grande Biome: Caatinga, Cerrado Trigger-species: Stygichthys typhlops 82 Monumento Natural Estadual Lapa Nova de Vazantes Biome: Cerrado Trigger-species: Eukoenenia virgemdalapa 83 Monumento Natural Estadual Peter Lund Biome: Cerrado Trigger-species: Eukoenenia maquinensis, Lygromma ybyguara 84 Monumento Natural Serra da Moeda Biome: Atlantic Forest Trigger-species: Troglobius ferroicus 85 Parque Estadual de Ibitipoca Biome: Atlantic Forest Trigger-species: Ochyrocera ibitipoca 86 Parque Estadual do Sumidouro Biome: Atlantic Forest Trigger-species: Thaumastus lundi 87 Parque Nacional Cavernas do Peruaçu Biome: Cerrado Trigger-species: Charinus eleonorae, Iandumoema uai, Pseudochthonius biseriatus, Trichomycterus itacarambiensis 88 Parque Nacional de Itatiaia Biome: Atlantic Forest Trigger-species: Euptychia boulleti 89 Parque Natural Municipal da Serra de São Domingos Biome: Atlantic Forest Trigger-species: Bokermannohyla vulcaniae 90 Pirapora Biome: Cerrado Trigger-species: Hypsolebias nielseni 91 Poços de Caldas Biome: Atlantic Forest Trigger-species: Proceratophrys palustris 92 Ribeirão Entre Rios Biome: Cerrado Trigger-species: Hypsolebias virgulatus 93 Rio Canoas Biome: Cerrado Trigger-species: Aegla franca 94 Rio Carandaí Biome: Atlantic Forest Trigger-species: Microlepidogaster perforatus 95 Rio Carangola Biome: Atlantic Forest Trigger-species: Mesoclemmys hogei 96 Rio das Tabocas Biome: Cerrado Trigger-species: Hypsolebias auratus 97 Rio Matipó Biome: Atlantic Forest Trigger-species: Pareiorhaphis nasuta 98 São Francisco Biome: Cerrado Trigger-species: Hypsolebias rufus 99 Serra da Mantiqueira Biome: Atlantic Forest Trigger-species: Holoaden luederwaldti, Orobrassolis ornamentalis 100 Simonésia Biome: Atlantic Forest Trigger-species: Epiperipatus adenocryptus 101 Alto Rio Pavuna Biome: Atlantic Forest Trigger-species: Leptolebias opalescens 102 Bacia do Rio Estrela Biome: Atlantic Forest Trigger-species: Listrura nematopteryx 103 Baía de Ilha Grande Biome: Atlantic Forest Trigger-species: Atlantirivulus lazzarotoi, Atlantirivulus simplicis, Formicivora erythronotos 104 Floresta Estadual Mário Xavier Biome: Atlantic Forest Trigger-species: Physalaemus soaresi 105 Lagos Fluminenses Biome: Atlantic Forest Trigger-species: Atlantirivulus maricensis, Formicivora littoralis, Listrura tetraradiata, Nematolebias catimbau, Nematolebias papilliferus, Notholebias fractifasciatus 106 Nova Iguaçu Biome: Atlantic Forest Trigger-species: Leptolebias marmoratus 107 Parque Nacional da Tijuca Biome: Atlantic Forest Trigger-species: Pseudocroniades machaon seabrai 108 Praia de Itaipu Trigger-species: Petaloconchus myrakeenae 109 ARIE Ilhas de Queimada Grande e Queimada Pequena Trigger-species: Bothrops insularis, Scinax peixotoi 110 Cananéia Biome: Atlantic Forest Trigger-species: Leontopithecus caissara 111 Estação Ecológica Ribeirão Preto Biome: Atlantic Forest Trigger-species: Cartagonum apiuba, Lycomorphon brasiliense 112 Foz de Iguape Biome: Atlantic Forest Trigger-species: Campellolebias dorsimaculatus 113 Gruta da Toca Biome: Cerrado Trigger-species: Pseudonannolene tocaiensis 114 Parque Estadual Carlos Botelho Biome: Atlantic Forest Trigger-species: Brachyteles arachnoides 115 Parque Estadual Caverna do Diabo Biome: Atlantic Forest Trigger-species: Arrhopalites lawrencei 116 Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar Biome: Atlantic Forest Trigger-species: Listrura camposi, Pseudotocinclus juquiae 117 Parque Estadual de Ilhabela Biome: Atlantic Forest Trigger-species: Bothrops otavioi, Charinus asturius, Gonyostomus insularis, Phyllomys thomasi 118 Parque Estadual Intervales Biome: Atlantic Forest Trigger-species: Aegla leptochela, Arrhopalites heteroculatus 119 Parque Estadual Turístico do Alto Ribeira Biome: Atlantic Forest Trigger-species: Aegla cavernícola, Aegla microphthalma, Arrhopalites alambariensis, Arrhopalites amorimi, Arrhopalites gnaspinii, Cryptops (Trigonocryptops) iporangensis, Leodesmus yporangae, Maxchernes iporangae, Pachylospeleus strinatii, Pararrhopalites wallacei, Pimelodella kronei, Potamolithus karsticus, Potamolithus troglobius, Progarypus nigrimanus 120 Refúgio da Vida Silvestre de Alcatrazes e Estação Ecológica Tupinambás Trigger-species: Cycloramphus faustoi, Ololygon alcatraz, Bothrops alcatraz 121 Ribeirão Grande Biome: Atlantic Forest Trigger-species: Neoplecostomus selenae 122 Rio Juquiá Biome: Atlantic Forest Trigger-species: Campellolebias intermedius 123 São Pedro Biome: Cerrado Trigger-species: Aegla perobae 124 São Sebastião Trigger-species: Eunice sebastiani, Synaptula secreta, Willeya loya 125 Bacia do Rio Jordão Biome: Atlantic Forest Trigger-species: Jenynsia diphyes 126 Bacia do rio Tibaji Biome: Atlantic Forest Trigger-species: Isbrueckerichthys saxicola 127 Gruta do Varzeão Biome: Atlantic Forest Trigger-species: Coarazuphium ricardoi 128 Monumento Natural Gruta da Lancinha Biome: Atlantic Forest Trigger-species: Arrhopalites paranaensis 129 Parque Estadual da Serra de Baitaca Biome: Atlantic Forest Trigger-species: Brachycephalus pernix 130 Arroio Bagé Biome: Pampa Trigger-species: Austrolebias vazferreirai 131 Cabeceiras do Rio Caraguatá Biome: Atlantic Forest Trigger-species: Characidium vestigipinne 132 Costões do Rio Grande Biome: Marinho-Costeiro Trigger-species: Olivancillaria contortuplicata, Olivancillaria teaguei 133 Lago Guaíba Biome: Pampa Trigger-species: Diplodon (Rhipidodonta) koseritzi 134 Lagos de Osório Biome: Pampa Trigger-species: Odontesthes bicudo 135 Parque Estadual do Espinilho Biome: Pampa Trigger-species: Coryphistera alaudina, Gubernatrix cristata, Leptasthenura platensis 136 Passo Fundo Biome: Atlantic Forest Trigger-species: Atractus thalesdelemai 137 Pontal da Barra Biome: Atlantic Forest Trigger-species: Austrolebias nigrofasciatus 138 Rio Caí Biome: Atlantic Forest Trigger-species: Aegla renana 139 Rio Forqueta Biome: Atlantic Forest Trigger-species: Melanophryniscus admirabilis 140 Rio Jaguarão Biome: Pampa Trigger-species: Austrolebias cheradophilus 141 Sul Atlântico Trigger-species: Polyprion americanus 142 Imbituba Biome: Atlantic Forest Trigger-species: Tropidurus imbituba 143 Parque Estadual da Serra do Tabuleiro Biome: Atlantic Forest Trigger-species: Cavia intermedia 144 Parque Natural Municipal das Grutas de Botuverá Biome: Atlantic Forest Trigger-species: Arrhopalites botuveraensis 145 Rio Matador Biome: Atlantic Forest Trigger-species: Aegla brevipalma 146 Rio Pinheiros de Barra do Sul Biome: Atlantic Forest Trigger-species: Campellolebias chrysolineatus APPENDIX 2: List of Brazilian Alliance for Zero Extinction (BAZE) trigger-species by taxonomic group. Respective BAZE site is indicated by number. Terrestrial Invertebrates Arachnida Avicularia gamba 29 Charinus asturius 137 Charinus eleonorae 68 Charinus troglobius 30 Drymusa spelunca 88 Eukoenenia maquinensis 100 Eukoenenia sagarana 61 Eukoenenia spelunca 46 Eukoenenia virgemdalapa 63 Eusarcus elinae 28 Hadrurochactas brejo 36 Harmonicon cerberus 88 Ianduba paubrasil 44 Iandumoema uai 68 Isoctenus corymbus 52 Leptokoenenia pelada 91 Lygromma ybyguara 100 Maxchernes iporangae 139 Metagonia diamantina 19 Metagonia potiguar 82 Ochyrocera ibitipoca 137 Pachylospeleus strinatii 139 Progarypus nigrimanus 139 Pseudochthonius biseriatus 68 Rhopalurus lacrau 19 Rowlandius ubajara 37 Spelaeobochica allodentatus 28 Spelaeobochica iuiu 18 Spinopilar moria 61 Tmesiphantes hypogeus 21 Typhochlaena curumim 92 Chilopoda Cryptops (Trigonocryptops) iporangensis 139 Scolopendropsis duplicata 146 Diplopoda Glomeridesmus spelaeus 91 Leodesmus yporangae 139 Pseudonannolene imbirensis 52 Pseudonannolene tocaiensis 135 Entognatha Arrhopalites alambariensis 139 Arrhopalites amorimi 139 Arrhopalites botuveraensis 129 Arrhopalites gnaspinii 139 Arrhopalites heteroculatus 138 Arrhopalites lawrencei 103 Arrhopalites paranaensis 64 Pararrhopalites papaveroi 87 Pararrhopalites wallacei 139 Troglobius brasiliensis 113 Troglobius ferroicus 65 Gastropoda Gonyostomus insularis 137 Succinea lopesi 47 Thaumastus lundi 67 Insecta Cartagonum apiuba 133 Ceracis cassumbensis 15 Coarazuphium cessaima 19 Coarazuphium ricardoi 99 Coarazuphium tapiaguassu 91 Coarazuphium tessai 13 Copelatus cessaima 88 Euptychia boulleti 79 Gnamptogenys wilsoni 16 Hermanella amere 48 Leptagrion acutum 32 Lycomorphon brasiliense 133 Morpho epistrophus nikolajewna 140 Orobrassolis ornamentalis 81 Parides klagesi 90 Pseudocroniades machaon seabrai 109 Stigmatomma cleae 17 Udeonychophora Epiperipatus adenocryptus 78 Epiperipatus paurognostus 58 Aquatic Invertebrates Anthozoa Condylactis gigantea 23 Bivalvia Diplodon (Rhipidodonta) koseritzi 117 Demospongiae Racekiela cavernicola 14 Enteropneusta Willeya loya 144 Gastropoda Olivancillaria contortuplicata 125 Olivancillaria teaguei 125 Petaloconchus myrakeenae 110 Potamolithus karsticus 139 Potamolithus troglobius 139 Spiripockia punctata 30 Holothuroidea Synaptula secreta 144 Malacostraca Aegla brevipalma 130 Aegla cavernicola 139 Aegla franca 80 Aegla leptochela 138 Aegla microphthalma 139 Aegla perobae 143 Aegla renana 12 Polychaeta Eunice sebastiani 144 Continental Fish Atheriniformes Odontesthes bicudo 118 Characiformes Characidium vestigipinne 116 Hasemania piatan 9 Kolpotocheirodon figueiredoi 28 Lepidocharax diamantina 28 Prochilodus britskii 85 Stygichthys typhlops 62 Cyprinodontiformes Anablepsoides cearensis 38 Atlantirivulus lazzarotoi 111 Atlantirivulus maricensis 107 Atlantirivulus nudiventris 45 Atlantirivulus simplicis 111 Austrolebias cheradophilus 124 Austrolebias nigrofasciatus 121 Austrolebias vazferreirai 115 Campellolebias chrysolineatus 131 Campellolebias dorsimaculatus 134 Campellolebias intermedius 142 Cynolebias griseus 53 Cynolebias leptocephalus 25 Hypsolebias auratus 75 Hypsolebias ghisolfii 25 Hypsolebias marginatus 54 Hypsolebias multiradiatus 145 Hypsolebias nielseni 70 Hypsolebias rufus 77 Hypsolebias tocantinensis 56 Hypsolebias virgulatus 72 Jenynsia diphyes 97 Leptolebias marmoratus 108 Leptolebias opalescens 104 Mucurilebias leitaoi 8 Nematolebias catimbau 107 Nematolebias papilliferus 107 Notholebias fractifasciatus 107 Ophthalmolebias bokermanni 16 Ophthalmolebias ilheusensis 20 Ophthalmolebias perpendicularis 34 Pamphorichthys pertapeh 55 Phalloptychus eigenmanni 27 Pituna xinguensis 89 Plesiolebias altamira 89 Simpsonichthys santanae 41 Spectrolebias reticulatus 89 Xenurolebias izecksohni 43 Gymnotiformes Apteronotus lindalvae 6 Sternarchorhynchus higuchii 6 Sternarchorhynchus jaimei 6 Siluriformes Ancistrus cryptophthalmus 52 Isbrueckerichthys saxicola 98 Ituglanis bambui 52 Ituglanis cahyensis 26 Ituglanis mambai 51 Listrura camposi 112 Listrura nematopteryx 105 Listrura tetraradiata 107 Microlepidogaster perforatus 73 Neoplecostomus selenae 141 Pareiorhaphis nasuta 76 Pimelodella kronei 139 Pimelodella spelaea 52 Pseudotocinclus juquiae 112 Trichogenes claviger 50 Trichomycterus itacarambiensis 68 Trichomycterus novalimensis 60 Sea Fish Perciformes Polyprion americanus 126 Scarus trispinosus 23 Vertebrates Amphibia Anura Allobates brunneus 83 Aparasphenodon pomba 59 Bokermannohyla vulcaniae 69 Brachycephalus pernix 101 Crossodactylus dantei 1 Crossodactylus lutzorum 31 Cycloramphus faustoi 93 Holoaden luederwaldti 81 Melanophryniscus admirabilis 123 Melanophryniscus setiba 49 Ololygon alcatraz 93 Physalaemus soaresi 106 Proceratophrys palustris 71 Proceratophrys sanctaritae 7 Scinax peixotoi 132 Reptilia Amphisbenia Amphisbaena arda 11 Amphisbaena supernumeraria 95 Amphisbaena uroxena 12 Lizards Calyptommatus nicterus 11 Calyptommatus sinebrachiatus 11 Enyalius erythroceneus 12 Eurolophosaurus amathites 11 Heterodactylus septentrionalis 12 Procellosaurinus tetradactylus 10 Tropidurus imbituba 127 Chelonia (inland) Mesoclemmys hogei 74 Snakes Apostolepis gaboi 11 Apostolepis serrana 84 Apostolepis striata 86 Atractus caete 4 Atractus thalesdelemai 120 Bothrops alcatraz 93 Bothrops insularis 132 Bothrops muriciensis 1 Bothrops otavioi 137 Rodriguesophis chui 11 Typhlops yonenagae 11 Sea turtles Dermochelys coriacea 42 Eretmochelys imbricata 94 Mammalia Primates Brachyteles arachnoides 136 Leontopithecus caissara 102 Rodents and Lagomorpha Cavia intermedia 128 Ctenomys bicolor 114 Phyllomys thomasi 137 Aves Accipitriformes Leptodon forbesi 2 Galliformes Crax blumenbachii 43 Crax fasciolata pinima 57 Odontophorus capueira plumbeicollis 39 Pauxi mitu 3 Passeriformes Antilophia bokermanni 40 Coryphistera alaudina 119 Formicivora erythronotos 111 Formicivora grantsaui 21 Formicivora littoralis 107 Gubernatrix cristata 119 Leptasthenura platensis 119 Merulaxis stresemanni 33 Nemosia rourei 50 Sclerurus caudacutus caligineus 1 Sclerurus caudacutus umbretta 43 Thamnophilus nigrocinereus tschudii 5 Pelecaniformes Phaethon aethereus 23 Phaethon lepturus 96 Piciformes Celeus flavus subflavus 43 Selenidera gouldii baturitensis 39 Procellariiformes Pterodroma arminjoniana 47 Puffinus lherminieri 96 Psittaciformes Anodorhynchus leari 24 Cyanopsitta spixii 35 Suliformes Fregata ariel 47 Fregata minor 47 Sula sula 96 Trochiliformes Discosura langsdorffi langsdorffi 22 Trogoniformes Trogon collaris eytoni APPENDIX 3: Brazilian Alliance for Zero Extinction (BAZE) site map. Site 73 – Ilha de Trindade, located over 1.2 km east from the coastline of Espirito Santo State, is not displayed for graphical reasons.